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U-S-Refineries-Lake-Charles-Lemont-Wood-River-Rodeo-San-Francisco-Los-Angeles-and-TOP-Operators

U.S. crude oil refining capacity experienced a notable boost this year, climbing 1.5% to reach 18.38 million barrels per day. The recent expansion includes Exxon Mobil's Beaumont, Texas, refinery, which underwent a significant increase of approximately 250,000 barrels per day.

As of the start of 2023, there were 124 active oil refineries nationwide. After a two-year downturn due to decreased demand during the COVID-19 pandemic, U.S. refining capacity saw a significant rebound. In 2023 alone, capacity surged by over 100,000 barrels per day to reach 18.1 million, although this still trails the peak of 18.98 million barrels per day seen in 2019.

The uplift in capacity can be credited to expansions at key facilities like those operated by Marathon Petroleum Corp and Citgo Petroleum. Notably, the expansion at ExxonMobil's Beaumont facility was the largest seen in a U.S. refinery in more than a decade. Marathon Petroleum Corp remains the largest U.S. refiner, significantly aided by other major players like Valero Energy Corp and Motiva Enterprises. The industry is also increasingly pivoting towards renewable energy sources.

Valero Energy Corp stands out as the second-largest U.S. refiner, with its refining capacity making up about 12% of the national total at 2.21 million barrels per day. 

In 2019, the U.S. crude oil refining industry reached a historic peak, with distillation capacities hitting an unprecedented 19 million barrels per day (bpd), according to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This marked a growth of 0.2 million bpd or a 0.9% increase from the prior record of 18.8 million bpd established the previous year.

The landscape of U.S. refineries in 2019 included 135 operable facilities, with the Gulf Coast hosting around half of the country's total refining capacity. Interestingly, the dependency on imported crude oil in this region significantly decreased to 28% of total crude inputs in 2019, down sharply from 69% in 2010.

Additionally, the Gulf Coast experienced an early start to its refinery maintenance schedule, which had a substantial impact on operations. Notably, maintenance shutdowns affected significant players like the Motiva Port Arthur and Marathon Galveston Bay refineries. These two facilities alone represent about 7% of the total U.S. refining capacity, translating to more than one million barrels per day of processing capacity. Refinery maintenance, while disruptive, is a routine and seasonal activity, typically reaching its peak between late February and March.

Lake Charles Refinery (CITGO)

 

  • Crude Oil Refining Capacity: 463,000 barrels per day 
  • Geographic Size: 2,000 acres
  • Ship Channel Docks: 4
  • Waste Water Treatment Plants: 1
  • Average Gasoline Production Capacity: 209,500 barrels per day

 

The Lake Charles Refinery, ranked as the seventh-largest in the United States, is known for its exemplary safety standards, setting it apart as one of the safest facilities in the refining industry.

In the first quarter of 2024, the refinery processed a total throughput of 830,000 barrels per day, with crude runs accounting for 769,000 bpd and an average crude utilization rate of 95%. This performance marks an improvement from the first quarter of 2023, where total throughput was slightly lower at 814,000 bpd and crude runs were 772,000 bpd, with an average utilization rate of 96%.

Financially, CITGO's investment in maintaining and enhancing the refinery's capabilities is substantial. In recent expenditures, the company invested $99 million in turnaround and catalyst costs, alongside an additional $101 million in direct capital expenditures. Looking ahead, the projected expenses for turnaround, catalyst, and other capital expenditures in 2024 are estimated to reach around $1.1 billion.

Lemont Refinery (CITGO)

 

  • Average Crude Capacity: 177,000 barrels per day
  • Geographic Size: 1,100 acres
  • Ship Channel Docks: 1
  • Waste Water Treatment Plants: 1
  • Average Gasoline Production Capacity: 95,200 barrels per day 

 

The Lemont Refinery in Illinois stands as a key player in the supply chain of transportation fuels, particularly serving the upper Midwest. This refinery has not only achieved a crude capacity utilization rate of 103% but also set a new monthly record for jet fuel production. Its strategic role extends beyond fuel production; it manufactures several grades of gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, and high-quality hydrocarbon solvents.

Wood River Refinery (Phillips 66) 

 

  • Phillips 66 Ownership: 50% of listed capacities
  • Gasolines Production: 176,000 barrels per day 
  • Distillates Production: 140,000 barrels per day 
  • Crude Throughput: 346,000 barrels per day 
  • Total Throughput: 360,000 barrels per day 

 

The Wood River Refinery is strategically situated in Roxana, Illinois, approximately 15 miles northeast of St. Louis, Missouri, at the meeting point of the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. This refinery boasts a comprehensive suite of processing units including crude distilling, naphtha reforming, fluid catalytic cracking, alkylation, hydrocracking, hydrodesulfurization, and delayed coking units.

Primarily focused on producing a high percentage of transportation fuels, the Wood River Refinery also manufactures petrochemical feedstocks, asphalt, and fuel-grade petroleum coke. The refined petroleum products from this facility are distributed across the Midcontinent region using a diverse network of transportation modes, including pipeline, railcar, barge, and truck.

Rodeo San Francisco Refinery (Phillips 66)

 

  • Gasolines Production: 60,000 barrels per day 
  • Distillates Production: 65,000 barrels per day 
  • Crude Throughput: 120,000 barrels per day 
  • Total Throughput: 140,000 barrels per day 

 

The San Francisco Refinery operates two major facilities interconnected by pipelines: the Santa Maria facility in Arroyo Grande, 200 miles south of San Francisco, and the Rodeo facility in the San Francisco Bay Area. The intermediate products from Santa Maria are transported to Rodeo for final upgrading into finished petroleum products, such as CARB-grade gasoline and fuel-grade petroleum coke, which are primarily distributed within California via pipeline and barge. Additionally, some products are exported to Latin America via waterborne cargo.

The refinery is actively transitioning towards renewable fuels production. The Rodeo facility is set to significantly ramp up its output, aiming for over 800 million gallons per year (50,000 BPD) of renewable fuels by the end of the second quarter of 2024. This includes a substantial increase in renewable diesel production, which achieved full rates of 8,000 BPD in July 2021 through the hydrotreater feedstock flexibility project. The Rodeo Renewed refinery conversion project, is expected to be operational in Q2 2024.

Los Angeles Refinery (Marathon Petroleum Corporation)

 

  • Refining capacity: 365,000 barrels per day

 

An integral part of the refinery is its Watson cogeneration plant, which has a capacity of 400 megawatts, making it the largest cogeneration facility in California.

Located in Los Angeles County near the bustling Los Angeles Harbor, the Los Angeles refinery stands as the largest on the West Coast. It boasts a substantial crude oil processing capacity of 365,000 barrels per calendar day. This facility is a key player in the production of clean fuels, processing a diverse array of crude oils sourced from California’s San Joaquin Valley and Los Angeles Basin, as well as from remote locations like the Alaska North Slope, South America, West Africa, and other international regions.

The refinery specializes in producing cleaner-burning fuels compliant with the California Air Resources Board (CARB) standards, including CARB gasoline and diesel. It also produces conventional gasoline, various distillates, natural gas liquids, petrochemicals, heavy fuel oil, and propane. 

Borger Refinery (Phillips 66)

 

  • Phillips 66 Ownership: 50% of listed capacities
  • Gasolines Production: 100,000 barrels per day 
  • Distillates Production: 70,000 barrels per day 
  • Crude Throughput: 149,000 barrels per day 
  • Total Throughput: 184,000 barrels per day 

 

Location and Operations: The Borger Refinery is strategically located in Borger, Texas, in the Texas Panhandle, about 50 miles north of Amarillo. This refinery is equipped with sophisticated processing units including crude distillation, naphtha reforming, fluid catalytic cracking, alkylation, hydrodesulfurization, and delayed coking units. The refined products from the Borger Refinery are primarily distributed to markets in West Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, and the Midcontinent region.

TOP Operators of US Refineries 

Saudi Aramco, Texas

PORT ARTHUR

It is the largest refinery in the US. 

The Motiva refinery in Port Arthur, Texas holds the title of North America’s largest oil refinery. Over the years, the refinery underwent various ownership changes, including a significant phase as a joint venture between Shell and Saudi Aramco, until Saudi Aramco took complete ownership in 2017. In 2012, the refinery underwent a landmark expansion, boosting its capacity to over 600,000 barrels per day. Today, the Motiva refinery is versatile in its operations, processing various types of crude to supply a wide spectrum of fuels and oils across the United States.

ExxonMobil Corp

ExxonMobil, after a significant $2 billion expansion in spring 2023, stands as the third-largest oil producer in the U.S., with a capacity reaching nearly 1.95 million barrels per day. This expansion notably increased the processing capacity of its Beaumont refinery to 609,000 bpd.

BATON ROUGE

Located in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, the ExxonMobil Baton Rouge Refinery ranks as the fifth-largest in the U.S. and thirteenth globally. This facility processes over 520,000 barrels daily, a capacity it has maintained since 2020. The refinery complex covers nine plants along the east bank of the Mississippi River and employs approximately 6,300 workers, including 4,000 direct hires. Notably, the refinery's tank farm capacity matches its processing rate, making it a vital component of ExxonMobil’s extensive operations.

BAYTOWN

The Baytown Refinery, situated in Baytown, Texas, is a key facility owned by ExxonMobil. Established in 1919 by the Humble Oil Company, it has a daily capacity of 564,540 barrels, making it one of the largest refineries in the United States. Spanning 2,400 acres alongside the Houston Ship Channel, the refinery stands as Baytown's largest employer.

Marathon Petroleum Corp

Marathon Petroleum Corp retains its status as the largest refiner in the United States, with the capacity to process up to 2.95 million barrels per day. This accounts for 16% of the country's total refining capacity across its 13 U.S. plants.

GALVESTON BAY

The Galveston Bay Refinery also recognized as Marathon Texas City Refinery is situated within the Texas City Industrial Complex on Galveston Bay. It boasts a capacity of 593,000 barrels per day, making it one of the largest refineries in both Texas and the United States. Originally ranked as the eighth-largest globally by 2018, it merged with Marathon’s other Texas City refinery in 2018. Despite its capabilities, in 2021, it was identified as the top emitter of benzene, a known carcinogen, in the U.S., raising significant environmental concerns.

GARYVILLE

Owned by Marathon Petroleum Corporation, the Garyville Refinery is the second-largest oil refinery in America, with a processing capacity of 596,000 barrels per day. Located in Garyville, Louisiana, this refinery covers 3,500 acres along the Mississippi River and was notably expanded in 2009 through the $3.9 billion Garyville Major Expansion Project. Its operations are extensive, involving crude distillation, hydrocracking, catalytic cracking, and more, focusing primarily on refining heavy sour crude into gasoline, diesel, and other products.

Chevron Corp

PASCAGOULA

Pascagoula Refinery, located in Mississippi, has a capacity of 356,440 barrels per day. It is primarily engaged in the production of motor gasoline and fuel oils, including Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). The refinery also produces specialty products such as benzene, ethylbenzene, propylene, and premium base oils. The refining processes at Pascagoula involve separation, treatment to remove impurities, and cracking to produce various transportation fuels.

 

BP PLC

WHITING

The Whiting Refinery is strategically located on the southwestern shore of Lake Michigan. It extends across Whiting, Indiana, and into parts of Hammond and East Chicago. With a crude oil processing capacity of 435,000 barrels per day, it ranks as the seventh-largest refinery in the United States. 

TOP US Oil Refineries 

Total Number in the US: 86

Refinery Name

Operator

Capacity (bcd)

Thermal Cracking

State

County

Port Arthur Refinery

Motiva Enterprises, LLC

626,000

No

Texas

Jefferson

Galveston Bay Refinery

Marathon Petroleum Corporation

593,000

No

Texas

Galveston

Garyville Refinery

Marathon Petroleum Corporation

585,000

No

Louisiana

St. John the Baptist

Baytown Refinery

ExxonMobil Refining & Supply Company

560,500

No

Texas

Harris

Baton Rouge Refinery

ExxonMobil Refining & Supply Company

520,000

No

Louisiana

East Baton Rouge

Whiting Refinery

BP Products North America, Inc.

435,000

Yes

Indiana

Lake

Lake Charles Refinery

Citgo Petroleum Corporation

418,000

Yes

Louisiana

Calcasieu

Beaumont Refinery

ExxonMobil Refining & Supply Company

369,024

No

Texas

Jefferson

LA (formerly Carson)

Tesoro Refining & Marketing Company

363,000

Yes

California

Los Angeles

Pascagoula Refinery

Chevron USA, Inc.

356,440

Yes

Mississippi

Jackson

Houston Refinery

Valero Refining - Texas, LP

205,000

No

Texas

Harris

Ardmore Refinery

Valero Refining - Oklahoma

86,000

No

Oklahoma

Carter

Saint Charles Refinery

Valero Refining - New Orleans, LLC

215,000

Yes

Louisiana

St. Charles Parish

Meraux Refinery

Valero Refining - Meraux, LLC

125,000

Yes

Louisiana

St. Bernard Parish

Benicia Refinery

Valero Refining - California

145,000

No

California

Solano

Warren Refinery

United Refining Company

65,000

No

Pennsylvania

Warren

Wilmington Refinery

Ultramar, Inc.

85,000

No

California

Los Angeles

Tacoma Refinery

US Oil & Refining Company

40,700

No

Washington

Pierce

Wilmington Asphalt Plant

Valero Refining - California

6,300

No

California

Los Angeles

Benicia Asphalt

Valero Energy Corporation

6,300

No

California

Solano

Source: Rextag

Oil Refineries - Owner by Capacity

Owner

Capacity (bcd)

Marathon Petroleum Corporation

2,878,800

Valero Energy Corporation

2,187,600

ExxonMobil Corporation

1,820,362

Phillips 66

1,725,800

Chevron Corporation

1,117,660

PBF Energy, Inc.

950,200

HF Sinclair Corporation

816,480

PDV America, Inc.

764,765

BP plc

675,000

Koch Industries, Inc.

673,500

Saudi Aramco

626,000

Shell Midstream Partners, LP (Shell plc)

569,894

Phillips 66 (50)/Cenovus Energy, Inc. (50)

505,000

Delek US Holdings, Inc.

501,500

Cenovus Energy, Inc.

367,800

Hilco Redevelopment Partners

335,000

Sunoco, Inc.

323,000

Petroleos Mexicanos

312,500

Access Industries, Inc.

263,776

Southern Rock Energy Partners, LLC

250,000

Source: Rextag

Conclusion

In 2023, the operable atmospheric crude oil distillation capacity in the United States, the primary metric for measuring refinery capacity, saw an increase of 2%, or 324,000 barrels per day. 

The reported 2% growth in 2023 marks the second consecutive year of capacity expansion in the U.S. refining sector. However, despite this growth, the total capacity of 18.4 million barrels per day at the start of 2024 was within the record high of 19.0 million barrels per day set on January 1, 2020.

A significant portion of the 2023 capacity increase was due to the expansion of ExxonMobil’s Beaumont refinery in Texas, which underwent a 240,000 barrels per day expansion project. This development raised the refinery’s total capacity to 609,000 barrels per day to the national capacity increase.

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Blockchain as a technology for smart contracts in O&G

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The oil and gas industry has long relied on the recommendations of trusted experts to make key supply chain decisions. The growing popularity of Blockchain technology could significantly disrupt these relationships by providing an unbiased methodology for sourcing, tracking, and executing transactions on behalf of customers with transparent data sets across supply chain endpoints. Blockchain technology has already been used by many global companies in the last two years in various areas such as IoT (Internet of Things), smart contracts, and cryptocurrencies. It has enabled businesses to benefit from the inherent trust and transparency of the technology.

How Exxon and Chevron Are Building Larger Oil Reserves

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As of the end of 2023, Exxon reported holding $31.54 billion in cash, with Chevron's reserves at $8.18 billion.

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Recently, the progress toward an energy transition is hitting a snag. Sales of electric vehicles are decelerating, and the growth in wind and solar power needs to be keeping pace with expectations. To make matters more challenging, electricity prices are climbing when they were expected to fall. Amidst these setbacks, the oil and gas sectors are proving resilient. According to BP's latest energy outlook, not only are these energy mainstays here to stay, but their demand is expected to remain relatively high even after reaching a peak. Interestingly, BP forecasts that oil demand will reach its zenith next year, marking a critical moment in energy consumption trends. This isn't the first time BP has projected a peak in oil demand. Back in 2019, their review anticipated a decline in demand growth, but the prediction fell flat. Instead, oil demand surged to unprecedented levels following the end of the global pandemic lockdowns, defying previous forecasts and underscoring the enduring dominance of traditional energy sources in the global market.

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Texas energy companies are picking up the pieces after Hurricane Beryl, an early Category 5 hurricane, hit the U.S. Gulf Coast earlier this week. However, it weakened to Category 1 by the time it made landfall in Texas. The hurricane brought heavy rainfall and sparked fears of storm surges, flooding, and tornadoes. As Hurricane Beryl neared, the natural gas supply to Freeport LNG’s export facility in Texas nearly stopped the day before the storm struck. Houston was particularly hard-hit, with the storm knocking out power for two million residents. CenterPoint Energy, a key power provider in the area, felt the brunt of the hurricane but aimed to have power restored to half the affected customers by the following day.

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The total number of drilling rigs actively exploring and producing oil and natural gas in the United States increased to 585 for the week ending July 5, up from 581 the previous week. Despite this recent uptick, the current count still falls short of last year's 680, indicating a slowdown in drilling activities. Analysts suggest that this reduction may reflect greater efficiency among shale producers, who now require fewer rigs. Nonetheless, concerns remain about whether some producers have enough viable drilling land

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