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What is the most important about the Permian oil and gas basin?

The Permian Basin is one of the most important oil and gas basins in the world, located in western Texas and southeastern New Mexico in the United States. 

The Permian Basin is currently the largest oil-producing region in the United States, accounting for more than 40% of the country's crude oil production. It also produces a significant amount of natural gas.

According to the latest data from the US Energy Information Administration (EIA), crude oil production in the Permian Basin reached a record high of 4.8 million barrels per day (b/d) in December 2021, accounting for more than 45% of total US crude oil production. This represents a significant increase from just a few years ago when the Permian Basin was producing around 2.5 million b/d.

In addition to oil, the Permian Basin is also a major producer of natural gas. According to the EIA, natural gas production in the region reached a record high of 22.9 billion cubic feet per day (Bcf/d) in November 2021, accounting for more than 15% of total US natural gas production.

The Permian Basin is estimated to hold significant reserves of both oil and gas. According to the EIA, the Permian Basin holds an estimated 41 billion barrels of oil and 430 trillion cubic feet of natural gas.

The Permian Basin is a sedimentary basin that formed during the Permian Period, about 300 million years ago.

The Permian Basin has a unique geology that has made it one of the most prolific oil and gas regions in the world. The basin is made up of multiple layers of rock that have been tilted and folded over time, creating numerous pockets where oil and gas can accumulate.

Much of the recent production growth in the Permian Basin has come from the development of shale plays, particularly the Wolfcamp and Spraberry formations. These formations contain vast amounts of oil and gas that can be extracted using hydraulic fracturing (fracking) and horizontal drilling techniques.

According to the US Energy Information Administration (EIA), production from the Wolfcamp Formation increased from less than 50,000 barrels per day (b/d) in 2010 to more than 1.5 million b/d in 2019. This represents a compound annual growth rate of over 50% during that time period. The average initial production rate for a new well in the Wolfcamp was around 1,200 b/d in 2019.

Moreover, the Wolfcamp Formation is the largest continuous oil and gas resource in the United States, with an estimated mean resource of 46.3 billion barrels of oil, 281 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 20 billion barrels of natural gas liquids.

The production from the Spraberry Formation increased from less than 400,000 barrels per day (b/d) in 2010 to more than 1.5 million b/d in 2019. This represents a compound annual growth rate of around 13% during that time period. The average initial production rate for a new well in the Spraberry was around 425 b/d in 2019.

The Spraberry Formation has estimated recoverable reserves of around 13 billion barrels of oil and 34 trillion cubic feet of natural gas.

The Permian Basin has an extensive network of pipelines, refineries, and other infrastructure that supports the production and transportation of oil and gas. However, the rapid growth in production has put pressure on this infrastructure and created bottlenecks in some areas.

The pipeline bottleneck has been a significant challenge for the US oil and gas industry, particularly in Texas and the Permian Basin, over the past several years. However, there have been efforts to address this issue, and some progress has been made.

Several new pipelines have been built or are currently under construction in the Permian Basin, which should help to alleviate the bottleneck. For example, the Cactus II Pipeline, which has a capacity of 670,000 barrels per day, began operations in August 2019. The EPIC Crude Oil Pipeline, with a capacity of 600,000 barrels per day, began partial service in August 2019 and is expected to be fully operational in 2021.

In addition to new pipeline construction, there have also been efforts to expand existing pipelines in the region. For example, Kinder Morgan's Permian Highway Pipeline, which is expected to have a capacity of 2.1 billion cubic feet of natural gas per day, began service in early 2021 after facing some delays and opposition.

The development of the Permian Basin has raised concerns about environmental impacts, particularly related to water use and contamination, air pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions. There are ongoing efforts to address these concerns and promote more sustainable practices in the industry.

When did they start drilling and producing in the Permian basin?

Oil drilling and production in the Permian Basin began in the early 1920s. The first significant discovery in the region was made in 1923 in the Westbrook field in Mitchell County, Texas. This discovery led to a boom in oil exploration and production in the area. By the 1930s, the Permian Basin had become one of the major oil-producing regions in the United States, and it continued to grow in importance throughout the 20th century. 

What were the first and best-known industry players in the Permian basin? 

Texon Oil and Land Company was founded in 1922 by oilman Buck Weaver, who leased land in the Permian Basin and began drilling for oil. Texon made several significant discoveries in the region and became one of the largest independent oil companies in the United States. While Texon Oil and Land Company has been operating for over 90 years, it is considered a small to mid-sized company in the oil and gas industry. It is known for its expertise in the exploration and production of oil and gas in the Permian Basin. The company has a long history of successful operations in the region and has continued to adapt to changing market conditions and technological developments to remain competitive.

Shell Oil Company entered the Permian Basin in the early 1920s and quickly established itself as a major player in the region. The company's early successes in the area helped to fuel its growth into a global oil and gas giant. According to Shale Oil Company's latest annual report, which covers the 2020 fiscal year, the company had approximately 13,000 net acres of leasehold in the Permian Basin. The report also indicates that the company had an average daily production of approximately 4,000 barrels of oil equivalent (BOE) per day in the Permian during 2020.

Standard Oil of New Jersey, which later became ExxonMobil, entered the Permian Basin in the 1920s. The company's Permian production averaged approximately 360,000 oil-equivalent barrels per day in 2020. 

Gulf Oil Corporation began drilling in the Permian Basin in the early 1930s. The company's success in the Permian Basin helped to fuel its growth into a global oil and gas player. The company's Permian production averaged approximately 635,000 oil-equivalent barrels per day in 2020, making it one of the largest producers in the region.

These early industry players helped to establish the Permian Basin as one of the most important oil and gas basins in the world, laying the groundwork for the continued growth and development of the region. Today, the Permian Basin is home to a diverse group of companies, from major oil and gas players to independent producers and service providers.

Today, the companies that were among the first and best-known industry players in the Permian Basin are still active in the region, although they may have undergone significant changes over the years.

What changes brought the unconventional drilling age to the Permian? 

The emergence of hydraulic fracturing (fracking) technology and horizontal drilling in the late 20th and early 21st centuries revolutionized the oil and gas industry, and the Permian Basin was no exception. 

Hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, is a technique that has evolved over many decades and involved the contributions of multiple researchers and engineers. However, some credit George P. Mitchell with pioneering the technique as we know it today. Mitchell was an American petroleum engineer and businessman who experimented with combining hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling in the Barnett Shale of Texas in the 1990s.

Fracking and horizontal drilling have made it possible to extract oil and gas from previously inaccessible formations, resulting in a surge in production in the Permian Basin in recent years. The region now produces more than 4 million barrels of oil per day, making it the largest oil-producing region in the United States.

The impact of hydraulic fracturing (fracking) and horizontal drilling on the oil and gas industry can be seen in the significant increase in production and reserves in the United States. 

In 2007, the United States produced about 5 million barrels of oil per day. By 2021, the country was producing over 11 million barrels per day, largely due to the use of fracking and horizontal drilling.

The Permian Basin, which is the largest oil-producing region in the United States, produced around 1.3 million barrels of oil per day in 2007. By 2021, the region was producing over 4 million barrels per day, with much of that growth attributed to the use of these technologies.

According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration, the United States had proved reserves of 475.4 trillion cubic feet of natural gas in 2007. By 2019, that number had increased to 504.5 trillion cubic feet, largely due to the use of fracking.

The increased production and reserves have also led to lower prices for oil and gas in the United States. For example, in 2008, the average price of a gallon of regular gasoline in the United States was $3.27. By 2021, the average price had fallen to $2.87.

What were the major technological challenges that the O&G companies faced in the Permian in 2010 and later?

As oil and gas production in the Permian Basin continued to grow in the 2010s and beyond, O&G companies faced a number of technological challenges related to drilling, production, and infrastructure. 

The rapid growth of oil and gas production in the Permian Basin has led to a strain on the region's infrastructure, including pipelines, roads, and housing. O&G companies have had to invest in new infrastructure and transportation options to keep pace with production growth.

Overall, the investment in new infrastructure and transportation options has been critical for the continued growth of the oil and gas industry in the Permian Basin. However, challenges remain, and ongoing investments in infrastructure will be necessary to support the region's continued growth.

The increased use of fracking and horizontal drilling has raised concerns about the environmental impact of O&G operations, particularly with regard to water usage and contamination, air pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions. O&G companies have had to invest in new technologies and techniques to reduce their environmental footprint and address these concerns.

The rapid growth of oil and gas production in the Permian Basin has led to a shortage of skilled workers, particularly in areas such as engineering, geology, and operations. O&G companies have had to invest in workforce development and training programs to attract and retain talent.

According to a report by the Texas Independent Producers & Royalty Owners Association, the Permian Basin's oil and gas industry is expected to need an additional 87,000 workers by 2023 to keep up with production growth and replace retiring workers. In response, many companies have increased their investments in workforce development and training programs. For example, in 2019, ExxonMobil announced a $10 million investment in workforce development programs in the Permian Basin, including partnerships with local community colleges and workforce training centers. Additionally, Chevron has partnered with Texas Tech University to establish a training program for petroleum engineers focused on the Permian Basin, and Shell has established a training center in the region to provide on-the-job training for new workers.

What were the biggest drops in production? Why? What did the industry do to survive?

In the 1980s, a global oversupply of oil led to a sharp drop in oil prices, which had a significant impact on production in the Permian Basin. Many oil and gas companies went bankrupt during this period, and production in the region dropped by more than 25%.

The global financial crisis of 2008 led to a sharp drop in oil prices, which resulted in a decline in production in the Permian Basin. Many oil and gas companies were forced to cut back on drilling and exploration activities, leading to a drop in production.

The biggest drop in production in 2015 was due to the global oversupply of crude oil, which caused a significant decline in oil prices. The OPEC member countries, including Saudi Arabia, decided to maintain high levels of oil production, which flooded the market with oil and caused prices to drop sharply. As a result, many U.S. shale oil producers, including those in the Permian Basin, were unable to compete economically and were forced to shut down production or reduce drilling activity.

The COVID-19 pandemic led to a collapse in oil demand and a sharp drop in oil prices in 2020, which had a significant impact on production in the Permian Basin. Many O&G companies were forced to shut down wells and cut back on production as a result of the pandemic.

To survive these drops in production, the O&G industry in the Permian Basin has implemented a variety of strategies: cost-cutting measures to reduce their expenses during periods of low production, including layoffs, reduced exploration and development activities, and renegotiating contracts with suppliers and service providers. It has diversified its operations to include other forms of energy, such as renewables, or has expanded into other geographic regions to reduce its reliance on the Permian Basin. O&G companies have invested in new technologies and techniques to improve efficiency and reduce costs, including new drilling and completion methods, improved water management, and increased use of automation.

The Permian Basin has faced a number of logistical challenges and limitations related to infrastructure, transportation, and workforce availability. 

The rapid growth of oil and gas production in the Permian Basin has led to a strain on the region's pipeline infrastructure, with limited capacity to transport oil and gas to markets outside the region. This has led to price differentials between oil and gas prices in the Permian Basin and other regions and has forced some O&G companies to use more expensive transportation methods, such as trucking or rail.

The increased transportation of oil and gas via trucks has led to road congestion in the Permian Basin, which can impact safety and increase costs for O&G companies. The region's roads were not originally designed to handle the heavy traffic associated with the O&G industry, which has led to concerns about infrastructure wear and tear. The rapid growth of the O&G industry in the Permian Basin has led to a shortage of affordable housing, particularly in areas with high levels of O&G activity.  It has also led to a shortage of skilled workers, particularly in areas such as engineering, geology, and operations. 

What environmental challenges the Permian basin has faced?

The Permian Basin has faced a number of environmental challenges related to the extraction and production of oil and gas. Some of the major challenges include:

Water management: The extraction and production of oil and gas require large quantities of water, which can put a strain on local water resources.

Air quality: The O&G industry in the Permian Basin can also impact air quality, with emissions from drilling rigs, production facilities, and transportation contributing to air pollution. 

Land use: The O&G industry in the Permian Basin requires significant amounts of land for drilling rigs, pipelines, production facilities, and other infrastructure. 

Spills and leaks: The transportation and storage of oil and gas can also lead to spills and leaks, which can have negative impacts on soil, water, and wildlife. 

What mergers and acquisitions have happened?

Mergers and acquisitions (M&A) activity in the Permian Basin has been at its peak in recent years, particularly from 2016 to 2019. 

In the years following the oil price crash of 2014-2015, many O&G companies in the Permian Basin faced financial pressures, with low oil prices leading to decreased revenues and profits. This created an environment where some companies were more willing to consider M&A deals as a way to stay afloat.

The Permian Basin has long been known for its large number of independent O&G companies, many of which are family-owned or operated. However, in recent years, there has been a trend towards consolidation in the industry, as larger companies look to acquire smaller competitors or merge with other companies to increase their market share.

The Permian Basin has seen significant technological advancements in recent years, particularly in the areas of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. This has made previously uneconomical resources viable, which has increased the potential for profitability and thus made some companies more attractive targets for acquisition.

Private equity firms have also played a role in driving M&A activity in the Permian Basin, as they have provided capital and expertise to smaller O&G companies looking to grow or expand their operations.

Overall, these factors have contributed to a period of significant M&A activity in the Permian Basin, with many high-profile deals taking place between 2016 and 2019. However, M&A activity in the region has since slowed somewhat, in part due to the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on the O&G industry.

What technologies have recently been implemented by companies to achieve maximum efficiency?

O&G companies have continued to refine their drilling techniques in the Permian Basin, using advanced technologies such as 3D seismic imaging and directional drilling to improve accuracy and efficiency. Companies have also focused on optimizing their hydraulic fracturing techniques to improve efficiency and reduce costs. 

O&G companies have increasingly embraced digitalization and automation in the Permian Basin, using technologies such as artificial intelligence, machine learning, and robotics to improve efficiency and reduce costs.  Some companies in the Permian Basin have also begun to explore enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques, which can help to increase production from mature fields. 

What is the importance of the Permian for the rest of the O&G industry in the US?

The Permian Basin is widely considered to be the most important and productive O&G region in the United States, and it plays a critical role in the broader O&G industry in the country, with estimated recoverable reserves of more than 70 billion barrels of oil and 280 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. 

The O&G industry in the Permian Basin has a significant economic impact on the region and the broader US economy, generating billions of dollars in revenue and supporting hundreds of thousands of jobs. It has been a key driver of innovation and technology development in the US, helping to drive down costs and improve efficiency in drilling, production, and refining operations. 

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CA$375 Million Bolt-on Deal to Expand Crescent Point

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On December 9, Crescent Point Energy Corp. announced a purchase and sale agreement to develop its core Kaybob Duvernay assets, which will bolt on production, the midstream infrastructure and technical data. With the deal, the company has committed more than US $1 billion to the play. Crescent Point, the Alberta-based company, is purchasing almost 65,000 net acres from Paramount Resources Ltd. for CA $375 (US $274 million) cash. The assets estimate more than 4,000 boe/d, 50% liquids, and include a gas plant, associated pipelines, water infrastructure, and seismic data. The acquired asset’s production consists of 35% condensate, 15% NGL, and 50% shale gas.

Grand Prix Pipeline Will Be Completely Owned by Targa: To Buy Remaining Stake For $1.05 Billion

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On January 3, Targa Resources Corp asserted that it is purchasing the remaining stake for $1.05 billion in cash from BlackstoneInc's energy unit in its Grand Prix NGL Pipeline that it does not already own. Targa, which is going to acquire a 25% stake from Blackstone Energy Partners, purchased 75% interest in the pipeline last year when it repurchased interests in its development company joint ventures from investment firm Stonepeak Partners LP for almost $925 million. The Stonepeak agreement also included 100% interest in its Train 6 fractionator in Mont Belvieu, Texas, and a 25% equity interest in the Gulf Coast Express Pipeline. Grand Prix has the capacity to transfer up to 1 MMbbl/d of NGL to the NGL market hub at Mont Belvieu. The same day Targa maintained the price of the Blackstone Energy Partners agreement, which is anticipated closing in the first quarter of 2023, representing roughly 8.75 times Grand Prix's valued 2023 adjusted EBITDA multiple.

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According to the latest data analysis from Rextag Energy DataLink, a substantial natural gas emission event was identified on April 9, 2024. Using satellite technology provided by Carbon Mapper, the data indicates an emission rate of approximately 37,000 kg per hour, equivalent to almost 2 BCF per hour. This event is the largest recorded at any oil and gas facility in the database since 2016. While the complete duration of the event is undetermined, assuming it lasted for only an hour, the leaked natural gas is so massive that it’s worth putting into perspective.

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As of the end of 2023, Exxon reported holding $31.54 billion in cash, with Chevron's reserves at $8.18 billion.

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Power companies argue that natural gas is essential for meeting energy demands when renewable sources like wind and solar aren't producing enough electricity. Despite the increasing role of renewables, which are setting new records in U.S. power generation and are favored to replace coal, the intermittency of these sources presents challenges that could keep natural gas in the mix through at least 2030. According to the U.S. Energy Information Association, the U.S. has enough natural gas reserves to last approximately 86 years. However, the finite nature of these reserves highlights the need for a continued shift towards more renewable and sustainable energy sources.

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